The TCP/IP suite is a set of protocols which we use on computer networks today (most notably on the Internet). It provides an end-to-end connectivity by specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received on a TCP/IP network. This functionality is also organized into four abstraction layers and each protocol in the suite resides in a particular layer.
The TCP/IP suite is named after its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
List of a few protocols included in the TCP/IP suite
- ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – It associates an IP address with a MAC address.
- IP (Internet Protocol) – It delivers packets from the source host to the destination host based on the IP addresses.
- ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – It detects and then reports network error conditions. Used in ping.
- TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – It is a connection-oriented protocol that enables reliable data transfer between two computers.
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – It is a connectionless protocol (TCP/IP suite)for data transfer. Since, there is no creation of session before the data transfer, there is no guarantee of data delivery.
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – used for file transfers from one host to another.
- Telnet (Telecommunications Network) – It connects and issues commands on a remote computer.
- DNS (Domain Name System) – used for host names to the IP address resolution.
- HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – used to transfer files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
The following table shows which protocols (TCP/IP suite) reside on which layer of the TCP/IP model: