TCP/IP suite of protocols

The TCP/IP suite is a set of protocols which we use on computer networks today (most notably on the Internet). It provides an end-to-end connectivity by specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received on a TCP/IP network. This functionality is also organized into four abstraction layers and each protocol in the suite resides in a particular layer.

The TCP/IP suite is named after its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).

List of a few protocols included in the TCP/IP suite

  • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – It associates an IP address with a MAC address.
  • IP (Internet Protocol) – It delivers packets from the source host to the destination host based on the IP addresses.
  • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – It detects and then reports network error conditions. Used in ping.
  • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – It is a connection-oriented protocol that enables reliable data transfer between two computers.
  • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – It is a connectionless protocol (TCP/IP suite)for data transfer. Since, there is no creation of session before the data transfer, there is no guarantee of data delivery.
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – used for file transfers from one host to another.
  • Telnet (Telecommunications Network) – It connects and issues commands on a remote computer.
  • DNS (Domain Name System) – used for host names to the IP address resolution.
  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – used to transfer files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

The following table shows which protocols (TCP/IP suite) reside on which layer of the TCP/IP model:

TCP/IP suite of protocols

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